Omron Ultrasonic Nebulizer: The Best Home Nebulizer

The Omron Ultrasonic nebulizer is one of the most affordable nebulizers for patients suffering from asthma or other COPD and respiratory conditions.

Omron Ultrasonic nebulizers are portable which makes them a very handy alternative for asthma patients, who need to take medicine even when outdoors. The compact design and unique nebulizer design boasts a powerful performance and less treatment span.

Ultrasonic nebulizers, invented in 1964, were portable nebulizers using electronic oscillators to create high frequency ultrasonic waves that would cause the mechanical vibration of a piezoelectric element. The element causes the liquid medicine to form a vapor mist. All this is done silently and the vapor is consistent and provides tremendous relief to the inhaler.

The best reasons for buying an Omron Ultrasonic nebulizer are:

– It comes with a warranty.
– It has a breath-enhanced design.
– All the models include a carrying case with accessory compartments.
– It has a patented pump design.

They are world-renowned for their affordability and performance. Some of the best Omron Ultrasonic nebulizers are:

– Omron NE-U17 nebulizer –

This model of the nebulizer includes a carrying case with accessory compartments. It has a compact and sporty design which makes it handy for carrying anywhere.

– Omron NE-U22 MicroAir nebulizer –

This is the most portable nebulizer in Omron's nebulizer category. This model has the best of everything. It is small in size (5 “tall and 2” deep and wide), lightweight, gives faster treatments, works silently, has smaller particle size and runs on standard 'AA' batteries. This is the perfect ultrasonic nebulizer for people going places. You do not need to recharge the batteries again and again, as they function on regular 'AA' batteries. The entire nebulizer weighs just six ounces, even with the batteries.

The nebulizer is fast and efficient and can be used with any medication including Pulmicort. You simply have to put the medicine in the chamber and then turn it on. A fog will rise immediately and the smaller particles will be absorbed far more easily into the lungs than the traditional noisy nebulizers. This means that you will be treated better with this ultrasonic nebulizer.

These nebulizers work on VMT or Vibrating Mesh Technology, and nebulize every drop of medication and therefore you do not even waste a drop of your expensive medicine. The nebulizer allows you to finish a 3ml treatment in 8 minutes.

This is the smallest and most durable nebulizer. It comes with a 2-year warranty.

{ Comments are closed }

The Ways to Cure Asthma

It's a chronic history condition which currently has no cure, but analogies or pulling all these can help you, create a specialist treatment plant to help keep your symptoms under control during an asthma attack. Large Airways called the rock I react to a trigger like analogy with contract expense. It's the wrong kind in clean and produced it gets further narrow, the Airways leading to the symptoms of asthma.

The goal of the asthma treatment is to eliminate symptoms and reduce the frequency of asthma attacks. Treatment plants typically include three components medication: environmental management and monitoring media employed by reducing infection which opens up a broad deal to allow air to flow easily, through that what type that is to help the wreck leaves belongs to use an inhaler is rescue medicines. If it lacks a strong tool to its improvements, air flow and its use during an asthma attack to alleviate symptoms in the short term. What term control medications like Arab there are also inhale which corticosteroids work around the clock to relax from field to express reactions to asthma triggers in this way, but the steroids can help prevent an attack or limit its intensity depending on the severity of your symptoms.

Your doctor may recommend a Redskin medication alone or a combination of medications to provide long term control, and immediately asthma attacks can be set off by any number of triggers which can include factors like allergens, stress, exercise, smog and even the common cold. The second component of treatment is to determine which of these factors add to your symptoms, and then take precautionary steps to reduce your exposure to them. It's cold winter, hair trigger you may accept about the scarf when you're outdoors to cigarette smoke was the symptoms clear up alert the people around you to your condition. If that's the side streets attacks your doctor may recommend using a rescue medication as a preventative measure before beginning any physical activity. Daily monitoring is the third component of successful asthma treatment: a device called a peak flow meter can help you monitor your lung capacity to use it take a deep breath and exhale into the inhaler size. Device 'meter measures how easily move air in and out of your lungs when you notice a drop in your peak flow numbers. It's an indication that an attack may be imminent. At this point it is important to limit your exposure to triggers or take medication toward the attack, once you with your doctor helped devise a treatment plan stick to it. If you have questions or concerns about your asthma treatment talk to your physician one other lawyer said that other sources on this site for more information.

{ Comments are closed }

Choose the Best Nebulizer

Pulmicort is a steroid that is used to control the symptoms of asthma. Asthma patients who do not find relief by occasionally inhaling a rescue inhaler, use steroids like Pulmicort. The medicine can be prescribed by itself or in combination with other long-acting beta agonist to prevent asthma symptoms like wheezing, chest tightness, shortness of breath and chronic cough.

Pulmicort is a highly recommended medicine because it works by reducing inflammation in the lungs and decreasing airway hyper-responsiveness. The reduced pollution, mucus production, and hyper-responsiveness will bring down your asthma symptoms. It acts directly in the lungs and so, makes your airways less likely to respond to asthma triggers. The Pulmicort nebulizer, unlike a typical inhaler, controls chronic asthma symptoms and is usually prescribed to be taken daily for better results.

Pulmicort nebulizers help in providing relief to the patients by acting on the different cells types involved in the patho-physiology of asthma such as Basophils, Eosinophils, Lymphocytes, Macrophages, Mast Cells and Neutrophils.

Pulmicort nebulizer is a special nebulizer that is used to administer the steroid, Pulmicort in asthma patients. They are prescribed as Pulmicort Respules, which is an inhalation suspension delivered through the Pulmicort nebulizer. These nebulizers are available in different strengths. After regular use, when you find that your asthma control is excellent, you may speak to your doctor about considering a decrease in the medication.

The use of Pulmicort as a steroid has its own set of risks and hazards. Some of the side effects are abdominal and chest pain, dizziness, hives, fatigue and weakness. However, these usually disappear with time. If they seem too bothersome, speak to your doctor.

Some basic things that you need to understand are –

The nebulizer must be used correctly. Studies have shown that more than 30% of asthma sufferers do not take their inhaled steroids as directed by their doctors.
Use the nebulizer for the treatment as a routine, and not only when you experience asthma symptoms.

Using the Pulmicort nebulizer will decrease your chances of getting side effects that you may experience. Secondly, the Pulmicort nebulizer also increases the quantity of medication getting into your lungs.

{ Comments are closed }

How To Reduce Asthma Causes

If you have Asthma you probably already know about all of the drugs you can buy to help alleviate the symptoms of the disease. And there are a lot them. But would not it be better if you could reduce the chances of having an attack? If you'd like to learn how, read on.

1. What are the causes of Asthma?

Airborne dust, pollen, and pet dander are just a few of the triggers that cause Asthma attacks. These allergens are common in homes and when inhaled can cause the wheezing, coughing, and restricted airways that are characteristic of this serious illness. Modern medicine focuses on treating these attacks after the symptoms appear or through chronic use of pharmaceuticals whose list is so long it is almost as mind numbing as the medicines are themselves. Would not it be better to reduce the occurrence Asthma attacks before they happen? Think about how much better it would be to breath easily and not worry about when the next attack will come. How much money could you save if a rescue inhaler was only needed half as often?

2. How can you reduce the causes of Asthma?

The best treatment for Asthma is prevention. And, the best prevention is reducing exposure to the triggers that cause Asthma by reducing the level of airborne particulates. An effective way of reducing airborne Asthma triggers is to use an air purifier. But, make the wrong choice in an air purifier and you're just throwing your money away.

3. What does a good air purifier do to help Asthma?

There are hundreds of choices in air purifiers, each making one claim after another. And frankly, most of the claims are probably unsubstantiated at best and inaccurate at worst. When making a selection, be sure to choose one that does not use ozone or chemicals – these can cause more harm than good. Also, choose one that has the airflow pattern to reach all of the air in the room and filter it at least 20 times per hour. If it does not do that, do not buy it because it will not reduce the triggers for Asthma.

{ Comments are closed }

How to Deal With an Asthma Attack

Experiencing a severe asthma attack can be scary for anyone. If you have been experiencing them or you know someone who is, the best course of action is to call for medical assistance immediately. There are several ways in which you can prepare for such an occasion in case you find yourself in that situation. The following should not be taken as actual medical advice.

Having relief medication on hand is critical if you or someone around you is experiencing an asthma attack. Should the asthma sufferer have a reliever, find it and give it to the him or her to use. They will know how many puffs to take. The victim should be positioned so nothing will affect their breathing while having an asthma attack. They should not be lying down and it helps to loosen their clothes.

To be further prepared for the possibility of an attack, it's important to know what the symptoms of one are. Being able to identify them will signal what is supposed to be done and how the treatment should be given. Some of the symptoms include breathing problems while exercising, excess coughing during the night, short breath and congestion, and severe wheezing following exercise.

An asthma attack has several stages that will occur. First, there are pre-attack preparations involving medical consultations. The medical expert will know the specific asthma condition to care for and how to manage it.

The post attack stage is about what medication worked and what did not. When another asthma attack occurs, the necessary adjustments will be made to treat it better. Because the symptoms and triggers will vary from case to case, extensive study is required for asthma diagnosis. Attacks range from manageable to fatal. Knowing the diagnosis, symptoms, and triggers will allow you to deal with asthma attacks the right way.

{ Comments are closed }

Wii Sports May Get A New Addition By Way Of A Pulse Oximeter

Wii sports is the best selling game unit in the history of modern gaming systems. It has sold an estimated 65 million units and has yet to slow down in sales. What the fans of the device always wanted was the ability to measure their pulse rate and oxygen levels during the game in order to monitor their fitness levels. However, this technology really as not available until the advent of the new portable pulse oximeter devices that have hit the market. A pulse oximeter is a medical and health device that is so well suited for measuring the pulse rate and the oxygen levels of individuals within seconds. So why did not they use this device previously with the Wii systems? The reason was that the pulse oximeter had not become portable in the sense that it could have made small enough to actually be used in the home setting. This changed however with the introduction of new chip technology that transformed the device completely.

The modern pulse oximeter systems are extremely portable and small. As far as their size you can actually liken it to the size of a very small pager. As a result you can take it with you where that you need to go in order to monitor your health. The Wii sports users may be able to use the device in conjunction with their gaming system as a health monitoring mechanism so that they can track their health as they exercise. Actually, one of the important functions that the device serves is that if the individual using the game has a health condition sometimes a cardiac or respiratory illness, the pulse ox can actually help to ensure that they do not overextend themselves to the point of damaging them health without their direct intention to do so.

{ Comments are closed }

Nintendo Plans To Bring Out A New Peripheral Device As A Pulse Oximeter

Nintendo is by far the most popular and widely used gaming system in the entire world. They truly lead the way in the innovation when it comes to gaming systems and devices. Their fans always desired a device that would be able to measure the pulse rate and the oxygen levels of the individuals during their game play. This can primarily come into use in games that involve fitness and health games where the individual is exercising or engaging in fitness activities that they would need to measure their pulse rate and oxygen levels in order to assess their health. Nintendo has now turned to utilizing the technology known as a pulse oximeter as its next innovation in the gaming world. A pulse oximeter has always been a device that was typically found in the hospital and clinical setting that was used as a means of monitoring the vital signs of individuals.

The reason why Nintendo did not use the pulse oximeter technology previously is actually actually it had not caught up to the mobility and portability that is needed to be incorporated with the gaming device. The previous generations were bulky and large devices that were not mobile and could not be moved around very easily. However, near the early nineties the devices changed and the chips became much faster and smaller than allowing for mobile computing. It was at that point that the game manufacturers saw the potential to incorporate the pulse oximeter device into their systems. Although it is not out yet in the general market for purchase however it is in the final stages of production and you should be able to see some news and releases very soon in the marketplace. The individuals most excited are those who are awaiting its release for the Wii exercise games as it would be great to measure the heart beat and oxygen levels while you work out on your Wii system.

{ Comments are closed }

How Does My Physician Help Monitor My Health With A Pulse Oximeter?

A pulse oximeter has long been touted by doctors as a must have medical device that is needed to monitor the pulse rate and oxygen levels of individuals wherever they are. The device has actually changed dramatically over the last decade because it has been transformed from something that was not very portable to a medical device that is completely wireless and portable now. The pulse oximeter works in a very technical way but its application to daily life is very simple. In essence, what the individual does is that they place their finger inside the device which is only a fraction of the size of a typical cellular phone. Once their finger is inside the device then they will get a reading of their pulse rate and oxygen levels within seconds. This reading is actually continuous so if you begin to run or sit down the increase or decrease in blood flow through your body will be reflected by the device.

What the physician does is that he recommends buying the pulse oximeter for home monitoring needs. Once the individual monitors themselves at home they can call the physician with their statements and the doctor will be able to determine if they person is functioning at optimal health or whether there is a need for concern. The device is very portable and can be taken anywhere that you need to go because it is powered by a set of triple A batteries that you can actually opt to purchase the rechargeable kind if you desire. Many years ago the medical devices went through a transformation in that they became much smaller through the invention of new technology that allowed them to get mobile and capable to be manufactured in the fraction of the size of previous models as they were in the past.

{ Comments are closed }

How Does My Nail Polish Affect My Pulse Oximeter Readings?

Nail polish is one of the factors that has a comprehensive effect on the pulse oximeter readings of individuals. The reason why this is is because of the way the device actually works. Essentially the individual has to place their finger inside the pulse oximeter device in order to get their pulse rate and oxygen level readings for healthy monitoring. Once the finger is placed inside the device a beam of infrared light passes through the finger and based on the percentage of light that passes through the device computer computes that actual readings for the heart beat and the oxygen levels. If you are using nail polish what this does is that it affects the amount of light that actually passes through you finger and as a result you will get very abnormal readings due to the fact that the light that passed through was not the natural amount that typically would go through.

One of the ways to prevent this is very simple and involves not wearing any Polish when you are going to use the device. There are pulse oximeter devices in the works that will be able to overcome this obstacle and still give you the vital sign readings without error, but they are still in development and more time is needed for them. As of now the only way is to actually not use any until the newer models come out that can be able to withstand the polish factor. However you have to remember that pulse oximeter devices are normally very accurate and it is mainly because of this factor that they tend to not get normal readings for individuals. One of the other things that you can do is actually try to find a polish that actually still allows the device to function properly as not all of them prevent accurate readings.

{ Comments are closed }

Alarm Function In A Pulse Oximeter Saves Lives

A pulse oximeter has long been the most preferred device of individuals living with various cardiac and respiratory conditions. One of the most common cardiac conditions is actually heart arrhythmia. This condition occurs when the heart beat actually beats at an abnormal rate and as a result can cause many detrimental effects to the body. Individuals living with this health condition use a pulse oximeter to monitor their pulse rate in order to monitor whatever they are experiencing heart arrhythmia. The way that it works is that the individual places their finger inside the device and within seconds they get the reading of the heart beat. Well that reading is in fact a continuous reading that can be left to continue read the rate throughout the day. The most important function of the pulse oximeter is actually the alarm function that has truly saved so many lives of individuals that suffer from this health condition.

The alarm function of the pulse oximeter immediately begins to work when the heart rate of the individual falls below or goes above a normal rate. Without a way of letting the person know that they are not operating at optimal healthy levels they really would have no way of telling and as such they may actually experience some health consequences that could have been so easily avoided with the use of the device. The product is actually quite portable and small which lends to its usefulness for daily use. Because it is highly portable and very small you can take it where you want to go and have that alarm function right at your fingertips which will help to possibly save your life. The power source is a battery that you can opt to turn into a rechargeable battery so that you can be more environmentally friendly.

{ Comments are closed }

Dentists Turn To Using A Pulse Oximeter To Monitor Patients During Procedures

Dentists have long ignored the importance of monitoring the vital signs of patients while they are actually in the dental operating room. The reason for this is that they have always thought that the monitoring of the pulse rate and oxygen levels is something that should be reserved for the doctors who actually would use that data in order to determine if there is something wrong with the health of a particular patient. However, there are individuals of all sorts of ages and health conditions that actually go in the dentist's room for anything ranging from routine dental work to more complex procedures. There have been many occasions where these individuals have suffered either a cardiac attack or some sort of respiratory condition while in the dentist chair and the dentists really had no way of actually knowing that this was going to happen. Well, today dentists turn to the use of a pulse oximeter to help.

A pulse oximeter is a health device that is used to measure pulse rate and blood oxygen saturation with accuracy and ease. The way the device works is that you simply place your finger inside the pulse oximeter device and within seconds you get a reading of the pulse rate and oxygen levels. The dentist can simply have the patient sit in the chair and begin his usual procedure. At the same time he can have the patient place her finger inside the pulse oximeter and during the entire course of the process if anything becomes unusual with the pulse rate or oxygen levels of the individual then an alarm will begin to sound which in turn alerts the dentist that something is not normal and special attention needs to be given. The device is very small and really does not get in the way of the person using it and is very portable and cost effective as well.

{ Comments are closed }

What Is Hypopnea And How Can It Be Monitored With The Use Of A Pulse Oximeter?

You have probably heard of sleep apnea in one way or another. Either you have heard about it on television or you or someone that you know actually suffers from this condition. What happens in sleep apnea is that during sleep the individual ceases to actually breathe for a period of time and as such there is no air flow into the body. What this means is that the body is not getting enough oxygen and as a result there could be damage done to the person's health. On the other spectrum is actually a condition that we call hypopnea. Hypopnea is a respiratory condition where the body does take in some oxygen by way of breathing during sleep but it is at a really low and minimal level. What makes it particularly hard to detect is the fact that you will have no recollection of actually ceasing to breathe or even low oxygen intake when you are sleeping. Thus a device was needed to monitor hypopnea and the oxygen levels during sleep. This came by way of a pulse oximeter.

A pulse oximeter is a health and medical that is specifically suited and used for hypopnea. The way the device works is that it actually measures the oxygen levels of the individual during their sleep and records the data on its memory system. The next day the individual can take their readings to their physician or sleep apnea specialist in order to get a professional analysis of which they actually are suffering from the health condition. The pulse oximeter is a device that may be a bit difficult to actually find and the best place to find them is actually online. The reason for this is that the best prices are offered online and the best selection as well. The whole experience is very easy because you simply order online and within a few days you have your device right at your door without ever having to leave your home.

{ Comments are closed }

Use Effective Natural Remedies for Asthma

The person suffering with asthma needs regular treatment for longer duration to bring the disease under control that is why natural remedies are preferred over normal medication as these remedies do not cause any adverse effects. There are many reasons for asthma and they differ from one individual to another as allergies are assumed as big causes for asthma but not everyone who has allergy may have asthma too. This disease can happen due to allergy, heredity, choked lungs, inflammation of respiratory organs, blockages in nostrils, weather conditions and other irritants. These triggers can cause narrowing of breathing track especially trachea to cause problems in breathing.

Holy basil leaves can provide few remedies which are very good in preventing asthmatic attacks. Chewing few holy basil leaves with honey as first thing in the morning, chewing holy basil leaves with rock salt can prevent coming asthmatic attack, drinking tea made by mixing holy basil leaves regularly helping the body in countering asthma due to allergies and swelling in respiratory organs and for temporary relief from asthmatic attack chewing holy basil leaves with black pepper is very helpful. Another very trusted natural remedy for asthma is consuming a paste made by mixing one teaspoon of turmeric powder in one tablespoon of honey. This remedy is treated as most effective for asthma. Consuming a ripe banana heated on a low flame and black pepper powder sprinkled on it will treat the asthma attack immediately, this is not a curative remedy it just help preventing a severe attack.

Half teaspoon of licorice roots mixed with a cup of water and boiled on a low flame for sometime is good natural remedy for asthma. Two teaspoons of spiegel seeds boiled with water and consumed twice a day is also a good remedy. Another very effective natural remedy can be prepared by mixing one teaspoon of fenugreek seeds with 250 ml of water and boiled on a low flame tear its volume is reduced to half, later adding one teaspoon each of ginger juice and honey with the mixture and consuming it everyday is an excellent remedy for asthma. Linseed also provide an excellent natural remedy which can soften and help the body in removing dried cough in the lungs, the removal of cough relieves asthma substantially. Take 20 grams of linseed and boil them on low flame with 300 ml of water till water is reduced to half, strain the mixture and add 10 grams of sugar in it. Sipping this mixture one teaspoon at a time in an hour is extremely effective.

There are certain precautions which a person can take to avoid asthma attack and these precautions also work as natural remedies. Dusting bedroom everyday or every alternate day with vacuum cleaner will help in keeping allergens away to prevent attack. Avoid using perfumes, cover mattresses with plastic cover and wash them weekly, avoid using brooms for cleaning, wearing scarf will avoid hot and cold air reaching sensitive airways and avoiding dairy products, meat and greasy food stuff which are difficult to digest will help in preventing asthmatic attacks. Increased intake of apples, leafy vegetables, carrot and tomatoes helps the body in countering triggers of asthmatic attack.

{ Comments are closed }

Electronic Nebulizer

An Electronic nebulizer is a medical device that is used to administer medicine in the form of mist to patients suffering from asthma and other respiratory problems. The medicine is inhaled directly into the lungs. It has been seen that even animals with influenza recover more quickly if treated with a nebulizer.

In this article, we will discuss about the different types of nebulizers available in the market today. Remember that these nebulizers can be used for veterinary patients as well. So if you love animals, or have veterinary clinic of your own, read on for more information on the various types of Electronic nebulizers.

The first thing to understand about Electronic nebulizers is that they are readily on membrane vibration to produce an aerosol. This means that the units are smaller as air compressors are not required. Electronic nebulizers are quite affordable.

Electronic nebulizers can be purchased from any medical supply company at reasonable rates.

The sturdiest nebulizer in the market is the Jet nebulizer. These nebulizers have a well, which stores the fluids and has oxygen sources. When the nebulizer is exposed to the drug, small particles are formed. These nebulizers are used for animals in tanks and tents because the animals walk inside the tent, the medicine flows directly into them. However, the medicines are often deposited on the fur, and the animals may ingest the medicine after grooming.

Jet nebulizers are called mechanical nebulizers as they work by using an air compressor.
The compressor pushes the air through a narrow tube and then an opening, thus creating a vacuum, which further forces the medicine out of the nebulizer. You should be careful about care and storage of the nebulizer as its parts are not all dishwasher-safe. However, they can all be washed using normal soap and can be air-dried as well. Read all the instructions properly in the manual before washing washing any part in the dish washing machine.

There is another variety of nebulizer called the ultrasonic nebulizer which uses sound waves, unlike air compressors used in jet models. A special crystal generates these sound waves and the liquid medicine flows into this crystal, which is vibrated through the use of electricity. Due to this vibration, the liquid medicine flows through a mesh and turns to mist. This is a type of Electronic nebulizer. Sometimes there is a valve that regulates the flow of mist in ultrasonic nebulizers. However, it should be kept in mind that not all types of medicines can be administrated with ultrasonic nebulizers.

{ Comments are closed }

Hand Held Nebulizer

A hand held nebulizer is simply an inhaler which gives out a medication in a liquid vapor form. It is used by asthma patients who wear a mask connected to the hand held nebulizer and breaths in the vapor. The vapor is distributed from the machine through plastic tubing and into a mouthpiece in the mask area. But some asthmatics with acute asthma are unable to use a metered-dose inhaler. For these patients, the doctor prescribes an ultrasonic nebulizer.

In this article, we will tell you how the hand held nebulizer works.

The medicine given through the nebulizer loosens the phlegm and mucous so that it is coughed out easily. The hand held nebulizer helps to relax the muscles in the trachea and thus, air is allowed to move about the lungs more freely. The biggest point is that breathing the medicine right into the lungs is much more effective for rapid relief of asthma symptoms than receiving medicine in the mouth ,.

The treatment with a hand held nebulizer last not more than 15 to 20 minutes. This kind of a nebulizer is generally used for young children and infants, because they do not know how to use an Albuterol inhaler.

The drawback of using a hand held nebulizer is that it does not cure your ailment permanently, rather relieves it temporarily. Another thing is asthma drugs may have certain side effects.

Tips on cleaning a nebulizer –

Since nebulizers are used to send medicine directly to the lungs, with the intention of loosening mucus, it is important to keep the nebulizer clean and safe. Once the treatment is completed, you may do the following to clean your nebulizer so that it works properly.

– After the treatment is complete, turn off the nebulizer.

– Then disconnect the nebulizer cup, tubing and mask from one another.

– Now add a few drops of mild dish washing detergent into a cup of warm water.

– Now take a clean cloth and soak it in the warm soapy water.

– Wash the hand held nebulizer cup, tubing and mask. Remember not to submerge the cup or tubing in water or place these parts in the dishwasher.

– Now rinse off all of the soapy parts of the nebulizer.

– Once done, lay the parts to dry on a clean towel.

– When the nebulizer parts are thoroughly washed, put them in a plastic bag.

You can also clean the nebulizer cup with equal parts vinegar and water once a week. Check the filter regularly, and if its tatters or takes on a brown coloring, you must replace it immediately.

{ Comments are closed }